Languages of the world: 7. Arabic

Languages of the world:

Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD.  It includes the literary language and the spoken Arabic varieties.

The literary language is called Modern Standard Arabic. It is the only official form of Arabic.The spoken Arabic varieties are spoken in a wide territory stretching across the Middle East and North Africa.Arabic languages are Central Semitic languages, most closely related to Hebrew, Aramaic, Ugaritic and Phoenician.

It is official in 26 states and it is also the liturgical language of Islam. Despite of its different dialects, the modern standard Arabic is widely taught in schools, universities, and used to varying degrees in workplaces, government and the media.

This language is the only surviving member of the Old North Arabian dialect group. It is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although some spoken varieties use Latin alphabet.

Arabic has lent many words to other languages of the Islamic world, like Persian, Turkish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Urdu, Hindi, Malay and Hausa. We can appreciate Arabic influence in languages such as Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan and Sicilian. Arabic language has also borrowed words from languages, for example Hebrew, Greek, Persian, Syriac, Turkish and English and French in recent times.

The major dialects groups are:

Egyptian (Spoken by 80 million people), Maghrebi (75 million people speak this dialect), Mesopotamian (Spoken by 36 million), Levantine (35 million speakers), Sudanese (30 million people), Yemeni (25 million speakers) and Najdi (10 million people).

The Arabic alphabet can be divided into two groups order.

  • The original ’abjadī order (أَبْجَدِي):
غ ظ ض ذ خ ث ت ش ر ق ص ف ع س ن م ل ك ي ط ح ز و ه د ج ب أ
gh dh kh th t sh r q f s n m l k y z w h d j b
  • the newer hijā’ī order (with letters partially grouped together by similarity of shape, used where lists of names and words are sorted):
ي و ه ن م ل ك ق ف غ ع ظ ط ض ص ش س ز ر ذ د خ ح ج ث ت ب أ
y w h n m l k q f gh sh s z r dh d kh zh th t b

Arabic is a language which lies far from English but still you may find some false friends such as:

  • If you hear the word “when”(وين) in Arabic they are talking about where something is.
  • If your name is Anna, you would be saying in Arabic “I” (أنا).

Here, at the University of Almería, you can find Arabic courses in our “Centro de Lenguas

مع السلامة. (Ma’a salama) and do not forget to like us on Facebook !!!

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Languages of the world: 6. Russian

Languages of the world:

Russian is a Slavic language spoken primarily in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. It is not an official language in Moldova, Latvia, Estonia but is widely spoken in these countries.

Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages and its closest relatives are Ukrainian and Belarusian.

The standard well-known form of Russian is generally called the “Modern Russian Literary Language”. It arose in the beginning of the 18th century with the modernization reforms of the Russian state by Peter the Great.

In the 20th century, Russian was widely taught in the schools of the members of the old Warsaw Pact and in other countries that used to be satellites of the USSR. In particular, these countries include Poland, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Albania, former East Germany and Cuba.

The language possesses five vowels, which are written with different letters depending on whether or not the preceding consonant is palatalized. The consonants typically come in plain vs. palatalized pairs, which are traditionally called hard and soft. The standard language, based on the Moscow dialect, possesses heavy stress and moderate variation in pitch. Stressed vowels are somewhat lengthened, while unstressed vowels tend to be reduced to near-close vowels or an unclear schwa. The Russian syllable structure can be quite complex with both initial and final consonant clusters of up to 4 consecutive sounds.

Russian is written using a modified version of the Cyrillic (кириллица) alphabet. It consists of 33 letters:

А
/a/
Б
/b/
В
/v/
Г
/ɡ/
Д
/d/
Е
/je/
Ё
/jo/
Ж
/ʐ/
З
/z/
И
/i/
Й
/j/
К
/k/
Л
/l/
М
/m/
Н
/n/
О
/o/
П
/p/
Р
/r/
С
/s/
Т
/t/
У
/u/
Ф
/f/
Х
/x/
Ц
/ts/
Ч
/tɕ/
Ш
/ʂ/
Щ
/ɕɕ/
Ъ
/-/
Ы
/ɨ/
Ь
/ʲ/
Э
/e/
Ю
/ju/
Я
/ja/

Russian Facts:

  • It is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages.
  • There are around 155 million native speakers in the world, being the 8th most spoken language in the world by number of native speakers.
  • There are three genders: masculine, feminine and neutral
  • There is no article.
  • Russian distinguishes between consonant phonemes with palatal secondary articulation and those without.
  • TheNovgorod Codex is considered to be the most ancient Russian book which dates back to the beginning of the 11th century.
  • Russian is classified as a level III language in terms of learning difficulty for native English speakers, requiring approximately 780 hours of immersion instruction to achieve intermediate fluency.

False Friends:

  • In Russian language, the word магазин (magazin) does refer to a shop and not to a magazine, which is said журнал(zhurnal).
  • If you overhear the word  kабинет (kabinet) you need to know that they are referring to an office.
  • There are more words similar to English like лук(Luk) that sounds similar to the name Luke, but the meaning is actually onion.
  • Декорация, sounds like decoration but it is a setting, while to say decoration you need to use the word украшение.

Here, at the University of Almería, you can find Russian courses in our “Centro de Lenguas

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Convocatoria del CEIA3 de 30 becas para prácticas en el extranjero

El ceiA3 convoca 30 becas de movilidad para prácticas profesionales del ámbito de la Agroalimentación en empresas de prestigio de la Unión Europea. Plazo de presentación de solicitudes hasta el 30 de noviembre de 2012. Para más información, haga click en el siguiente enlace.

5. Languages of the world: Polish

Languages of the world:

Polish is a language of the Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages, used throughout Poland and by Polish minorities in other countries.

The Polish alphabet consists of the basic latin scripts and certain letters with diacritics (ć, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż, ą, ę, ł) and the letters q, v and x, which are used only in foreign words, are not considered part of the Polish alphabet.

Apart from Poland, other countries with important Polish communities are The United States, Germany, UK, Brazil, Argentina, Belarus, Canada Lithuania and Russia.

The Polish language became far more homogeneous in the second half of the 20th century, in part due to the mass migration of several million Polish citizens from the eastern to the western part of the country and population transfers that followed World War II.

Polish grammar is similar in most respects to that of Russian, and those who have studied Russian will find its grammar much easier to grasp. Polish is a highly inflected language, with relatively free word order. There are no articles, and subject pronouns are often dropped. Nouns may belong to three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter. Adjectives agree with nouns in terms of gender, case and number.

It is said that Polish is one of the more difficult languages to learn because of its tongue-bending pronunciation, complex gender system, seven cases, aspect as a grammatical category of the verb and a tendency to avoid internationalism for “real” Polish words. At least consonants sound almost like they do in English and the stress of a word is always in the penultimate syllable.

If you learn Polish, you are half way closer to learn other languages such as Czech, Slovak, and Sorbian. Belarusian, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Macedonian, Russian, Slovene, Serbianand Ukrainian would be also easier to learn.

Facts:

  • There are around 600.000 Native Polish speakers in The USA.
  • Polish is made up of a few dialects including Little Polish & Silesian.
  • Polish is the 29th most spoken language in the world, and is one of the most widely spoken Slavic languages.
  • In 1475, the first Polish language book to be printed in Poland was issued in Wroclaw.

Some false friends in Polish are:

  • Komunikacja could sound like Communication, but it means public transport in Polish.
  • Aktualny refers to something valid or topical, while actual is said faktyczny.
  • A knot in Polish is a kid or wick. If you actually want to say knot you shoud use the word węzeł.
  • The English word complement is said uzupełnienie in Polish and komplement means compliment.
  • Lot can mean in Polish either dużo (many) or parcela (piece of land). If you actually say lot, then you are referring to a flight.
  • Something eventual in Polish is ostateczny and ewentualny is possible or potential.

Here, at the University of Almería, you can find Polish courses in our “centro de lenguas”.

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Languages of the world: 4. Italian

Languages of the world:

Italian is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe (Italy, Switzerland and San Marino) and by immigrant communities in the Americas and Australia. It derives from Latin and it is part of the Italic branch of the Indo-European language family. Italian is related most closely to the other two Italo-Dalmatian languages, Sicilian and the extinct Dalmatian.

Italian has got around 80 million speakers, mainly in Italy with 65 million native speakers, but also in Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, some regions of Slovenia and Croatia and large Communities in Argentina and Brazil.

The Italian language adopted by the state after the unification of Italy is based on the Tuscan (a language spoken mainly by the upper class of Florentine society.  Italy has always had a distinctive dialect for each city, since the cities, until recently, were thought of as city-states.

Throughout the world, Italian is the fifth most taught foreign language, after English, French, German, and Spanish.

Facts:

  • Florentine dialect evolved into the so-called “Standard Italian” that is recognized today as the national language.
  • Italian vocabulary has contributed many words to the English some of them are: gondola, regatta, fresco, vendetta, broccoli, pizza, spaghetti, cappuccino, fiasco, orchestra, piano, solo, a cappella, volcano, basilica, stucco, terracotta, and inferno.
  • All words end in a vowel in Italian, with the exception of a few articles, prepositions, and foreign words.
  • Italian language is completely phonetic, every letter corresponds to a specific pronounced sound, so we can say that it is read as it is written.
  • Learning Italian will help with the grammar of other Romance languages, such as French, Spanish or Portuguese.
  • There are different ways of saying “you”, these are: “tu” for people you know well and friends and the word “Lei” in other cases. The plural is, respectively, “voi” and “Loro”.

Some false friends in Italian are:

  • The word camera in Italian means room whilst camera is macchina fotografica.
  • Morbido is used in Italian to say that something is soft.
  • Don’t look surprised if you receive coated almonds when asking for confetti.
  • If you like something the correct word to use is mi piace (I like) and if you say mi piaci you are saying “I like you”.

Here, at the University of Almería, you can find Italian courses in our “centro de lenguas”.

Arrivederci and don’t forget to like us on Facebook !!!!!